The Expression and Management of Anger and Hostility: Psychological Implications
THE EXPRESSION AND MANAGEMENT OF ANGER AND HOSTILITY: PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS
Early research findings showed that the Type-A Behavior Pattern (TABP) predicted coronary heart disease (CHD) independently of traditional risk factors. Later studies established a relationship between anger/hostility, a component of the TABP, and the incidence and mortality of CHD (Barefoot, Dahlstrom, & Williams, 1983; Shekelle, Gale, Ostfeld, & Paul, 1983). However, more recent research has focused on a multidimensional approach to the psychological study of the coronary-prone individual. Simply experiencing anger or hostility may not be the only aspect of these emotional reactions that have disease-related consequences. How emotions are expressed, particularly negative emotions, may also play an important role as a precursor of CHD. Research evidence to date suggests that it is how anger and hostility are expressed, rather than the mere experience of these emotions, that is most relevant to coronary artery (CAD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD).