Experience of Anger and Anxiety Emotions during Examinations: Cross-Cultural Evidence
The literature abounds with studies on test anxiety, but there is relatively little research on the experience of anger and other emotions in examination situations (e.g., Elkind, 1986; Folkman & Lazarus, 1985; Pederson & Hollandsworth, 1987;
Pekrun, 1994, 1997; Pekrun & Frese, 1992; Smith & Ellsworth, 1985, 1987). Nevertheless, even these few studies clearly indicate that a variety of positive and negative emotions are frequently evoked in examination situations. Positive emotions include happiness, hope/challenge, joy, relief, and satisfaction, while negative emotions include anger, annoyance, anxiety, frustration, hopelessness/ sadness, and self-blame/guilt (cf. Pederson & Hollandsworth, 1987; Pekrun, 1994; Smith & Ellsworth, 1987).