chapter  9
24 Pages

Experience of Anger and Anxiety Emotions during Examinations: Cross-Cultural Evidence

ByCross-Cultural Eidence Norbert K. Tanzer and Charles D. Spielberger

The literature abounds with studies on test anxiety, but there is relatively little research on the experience of anger and other emotions in examination situations (e.g., Elkind, 1986; Folkman & Lazarus, 1985; Pederson & Hollandsworth, 1987;

Pekrun, 1994, 1997; Pekrun & Frese, 1992; Smith & Ellsworth, 1985, 1987). Nevertheless, even these few studies clearly indicate that a variety of positive and negative emotions are frequently evoked in examination situations. Positive emotions include happiness, hope/challenge, joy, relief, and satisfaction, while negative emotions include anger, annoyance, anxiety, frustration, hopelessness/ sadness, and self-blame/guilt (cf. Pederson & Hollandsworth, 1987; Pekrun, 1994; Smith & Ellsworth, 1987).