chapter  4
Ealuation of Test Anxiety Using Pictorial Ealuation of Test Reactions (PETER)
ByJoseph Toubiana
Pages 16

Test anxiety reveals itself in a variety of physiological, behavioral, and cognitive manifestations, and has been widely studied for the past 40 years as a major problem in technological cultures. The development of self-report questionnaires has stimulated cross-cultural research to evaluate levels of test anxiety reported by students from different countries. Most of these studies have used Spielberger’s (1980) Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) or Sarason’s (1984) Reaction to Tests (RTT) to measure test anxiety as a situation-specific trait. For example: Schwarzer & Kim (1984) found that students from Korea reported higher levels of test anxiety, as measured by the TAI, than German, Dutch, Hindi, Hungarian, and U.S. students, and El-Zahhar & Hocevar (1991) found higher levels of test anxiety among students in Egypt and Brazil, as compared to U.S. students. In a study of four Asian and five Euro-American cultures, females scored consistently higher in test anxiety than males (Sharma & Sud, 1990).