Pseudoscience, Nonscience, and Nonsense in Clinical Psychology: Dangers and Remedies
Mental health practices can be bad for your mental health. As counterintuitive as this conclusion may appear, it has been borne out by a substantial body of research over the past two decades. Although metaanalyses have demonstrated that psychotherapy tends on balance to be helpful (Smith, Glass, & Miller, 1980; Wampold, Mondin, Moody, Stich, Benson, & Ahn, 1997), there is persuasive evidence that certain forms of psychotherapy can be harmful. Moreover, the literature on “deterioration effects” suggests that perhaps three to six percent of clients tend to become worse in response to psychotherapy (Strupp, Hadley, Gomez, & Schwartz, 1978).