chapter  9
23 Pages

Democratization and Islamic movements in Turkey

ByYASUSHI HAZAMA

Empirical studies of social movements seem to agree that political opportunities are one of the most important determinants of social movements and, in particular their emergence.1 A political opportunity can be defined as an environment that gives incentives for collective action by increasing the participants’ expectation of success.2 This perspective is useful for analyzing Islamic movements in Turkey. Their emergence and development were closely associated with the expansion of political opportunities such as democratization and religious liberalization.