What design principles can be derived from the theoretical discussions of the previous chapter? All three approaches – which I will term associative, constructive and situative – emphasize the central importance of activity on the part of the learner. Several decades of research support the view that it is the activity that the learner engages in, and the outcomes of that activity, that are signiﬁcant for learning (e.g. Tergan 1997). There is no reason why the introduction of digital tools and materials should change this emphasis, and indeed the emergence of Learning Design as a dominant paradigm can be taken as a sign that activity is being reinstated as the focus of concern. Design for learning should therefore focus primarily on the activities undertaken by learners, and only secondarily on (for example) the tools or materials that support them.