In this chapter, learning design is considered from a technical perspective – how the concept differs from earlier paradigms such as instructional design, and how learning activities might be represented in the systems that produce and ‘run’ or instantiate them. The IMS Learning Design speciﬁcation is given special attention, due to its promise of interoperability and potentially universal sharing of designs. The authors go on to discuss the learning design tools currently available to practitioners and propose a framework for evaluating how well they support the human design processes of planning, implementing, orchestrating and sharing pedagogical ideas. This chapter provides an essential link between discussions of design practice (see e.g. Masterman and Vogel, Chapter 4) and the opportunities presented by new technical systems and speciﬁcations.