This chapter offers an important bridge between the descriptions of pedagogical practice discussed in Part I (see e.g. Chapters 2, 3, 5 and 6) and the kind of formal representations that can be handled by learning design software (see Chapters 8 and 15). This chapter exempliﬁes design for learning within the systems design tradition, illustrating this through the use of scenarios at early stages of the design process. The authors describe the development of scenarios as a starting point for user needs analysis, and for the representation of user (learner) needs in the form of learning designs. The chapter begins with a discussion of what the authors mean by ‘learning and design’ and ‘scenarios’. This is followed by a description of a particular Scenario-based User Needs Analysis (SUNA) method, and how it can be extended to cover evaluation activities.