Subcontracted homework by women and children in the Philippines
Since the 1970s, the Philippines government has implemented policies aimed at shifting the export sector away from reliance on agricultural and natural resources towards labour-intensive manufacturing. As a result, the composition of exports was significantly altered and non-traditional goods replaced the traditional exports. This shift produced further changes in the Philippine economy. These include the adoption of outsourcing (i.e. subcontracting) to smaller production units and/or homeworkers, as a means of increasing cost-effectiveness. This practice became very popular among main export industries including textile, footwear and handicraft production.