Schematic Description of 15 Types of Educational Evaluation
In this chapter each of the 15 specific types of M&E is briefly described for its general characteristics. In subsequent chapters each of the main data strategies (student assessment, monitoring on the basis of indicators and review and research methods) will be further characterized with respect to the use and follow-up of the M&E activities by different audiences and for the technical and organizational capacity that is required for a proper application. Table 1.1 in Chapter 1 refers to 15 types of educational assessment, monitoring and evaluation: 1. national assessment programs 2. international assessment programs 3. school performance reporting 4. student monitoring systems 5. assessment-based school self-evaluation 6. examinations 7. system level Management Information Systems 8. school Management Information Systems 9. international review panels
10. school inspection/supervision 11. school self-evaluation, including teacher appraisal 12. school audits 13. monitoring and evaluation as part of teaching 14. program evaluation 15. school effectiveness and educational productivity studies Each of the M&E types that are mentioned in Table 1.1 is briefly described on the following aspects: General description Main audiences and types of use of the information Technical issues Technical and organizational capacity required Controversial issues
3.2 Forms That are Based on Student Achievement Measurement 3.2.1 National assessment programs General description Assessment programs consist of educational achievement tests that are meant to monitor acceptable levels of performance in the basic school subjects in a country. Likely age-levels at which the tests are taken are 11/12, (end of primary school), sometimes also 14/15 (end of lower secondary school). Assessment tests in a particular subject need not be administered each year; for example, when there are 6 subjects in the assessment program, each subject may be tested every 6 years. Application of multiple matrix sampling, however, makes a more frequent testing (shorter time interval) for each subject matter area feasible. Typically national assessment programs will target samples of students. Depending on whether conclusions about schools as a particular organizational level would also be aimed for, sampling design would need to accommodate this by ensuring a sufficient number of students per school. Main audiences and type of use of the information Decision-makers at the central level, i.e. the Ministry of Education, parliament, organizations representing stakeholders in education like school governors, teachers, parent association, employers are also relevant. The information from assessment programs can lead to adaptations in the curriculum in the sense of goals (standards) or means (curriculum contents) and all conditions that have an impact on the performance in a particular subject (e.g. teacher training in the particular subject matter area, the textbook-industry, use of computers).