At times there can be tension between these different roles (Messner and Rauch, 1995). At other times, the outside researcher has to take on different roles
at different phases of an action research project (Losito and Mayer, 1995). In any case, the reflection of the outside researcher/facilitator cannot be developed only a posteriori. The facilitator should rather develop her/his research identifying questions and problems, collecting data and analyzing them. Her/his reflection should develop in parallel with the reflection of the practitioners, interwoven with theirs and following analogous and congruent research modalities (Elliott, 1993; Jansen and Dijkstra, 1992).