David Hursh (Chapter 11) contended that action research is a necessary critical, collaborative activity for educational reform, because education is a political and ethical activity embedded within conflicting views of social and individual goals. Sue Davidoff (Chapter 9) picked up that theme as she presents a case of whole school teacher action research in South Africa to investigate whether innovations in the way in which schools operate can impact on social transformation. Susan E. Noffke and Marie Brennan (Chapter 6) extended that notion by arguing that all forms of action research are political. They called for a broad definition for action research in order to achieve social justice. 'While social justice issues seem, at times, far afield from issues of the techniques of classroom practice, forms of privilege and domination (including those of academics) must be considered as part of the work of educational action research. Only by considering both can the politics of action research be reconstructed'.