Shepard’s opening argument depends on the residual ambiguity of Jensen’s (1980) phrase, ‘Most current standardized tests of mental ability…’ (p. 740). Jensen’s readers will understand that in this final summary he meant tests such as the Stanford-Binet, WISC-R, and group IQ and aptitude measures. Shepard’s task, therefore, is to challenge Jensen’s certainty with respect to those tests, and not simply to demonstrate bias of some kind in just any test whatsoever. The word ‘most’ would protect Jensen from that. So too would his discussion of his own test for item bias (pp. 440-1).