chapter  2
24 Pages

The Rio Declaration and Subsequent Global Initiatives

ByINGEMAR ELANDER, ROLF LIDSKOG

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Introduction Like any other kind of policy, environmental policy can be addressed from at least three different angles, i.e. a descriptive, a normative and a constructive one. The focus of the first angle is on how to describe and explain environmental policies, their formulation, implementation and outcomes. From a normative point of view it is a question of developing a realistic vision of what an environmentally just society should look like and on what values and norms it should be based. Finally, the constructive dimension pertains to the strategies, measures and activities on the part of various actors that should be taken to reach an environmentally just society. Strategies for sustainability or any other environmentalist goal include descriptive, as well as normative and constructive elements. In other words they include a view of what the world looks like in terms of environmental qualities, a vision of what it should look like and an idea of how to realise that vision.