chapter  17
12 Pages

Enhancing biology?

Cosmetic surgery and breast augmentation
ByPeter Conrad, Heather T. Jacobson

When it comes to the origins of human characteristics we often see them conceptualized as ‘nature’ versus ‘nurture’ or biology versus society. As we are increasingly learning from the social studies of genetics, it is much more accurate to see most characteristics as nature and nurture. While we are all born with a certain biological endowment, how it is manifested is a function of the social environment. This is even true about bodies. Biology may appear to set the limits on bodily development (e.g. we cannot fly), but individuals can work to improve body size and shape by working out and/ or taking supplements, or through other methods of enhancement.