Why debate biology? Has biology been ‘neglected’ or downplayed in past/ present sociological theory – as the title of this book implies? Does this matter? Can new non-reductionist positions be recovered or developed here, for instance? And what issues does this raise for contemporary debates on health, medicine and society and the challenges of the twenty-ﬁrst century? These are some of the questions which contributors to this volume have addressed, starting from the premise that bridging the gap between sociology and biology does indeed matter.