Sustainable agriculture in the northern uplands: attitudes, constraints and priorities ofethnic minorities
In the late 1980s, as Vietnam initiated the process of doi moi, the family farm was restored as the principal unit of agricultural production. Within several years, the country became the world’s third largest rice exporter and experienced double digit economic growth rates (Pingali and Vo Tong Xuan 1992; World Bank 1995a; Pingali et al. 1997). However, the economic gap between urban and rural areas and between high-potential lowlands and marginal upland areas has widened since that time (Kerkvliet and Porter 1995), with many upland regions still suffering from temporary and seasonal food insecurity (Rambo and Le Trong Cuc 1996a). Moreover, environmental concerns about fragile mountainous regions are increasing.