chapter  3

Electromagnetic Nanonetworks

WithMd. Humaun Kabir, Kyung Sup Kwak

Nanonetwork channels are physically separated by up to a few nanometer or/and micrometer and the nodes are assumed to be mobile and quickly deployable. Researchers are studying two types of nanonetworks: electromagnetic and molecular nanonetwork. Generally, nanomachines, act as the most basic functional unit, are able to perform very simple tasks such as computing, data storing, sensing or actuation. A set of interconnected nanomachines, sharing the same medium (e.g., the biological tissue or the fluid flow or other medium) and collaborating for the same task, form a nanonetwork. Possible applications are in healthcare, biomedical field (Freitas, 2005), environmental research (Han, Fu, & Schoch, 2008), military technology (Glenn, 2006) and industrial and consumer goods applications. Nanonetworks expand the number and range of operation envisioned for single nanomachine, since collaborative tasks like coordination, information sharing and fusion can possibly be done by different nanomachines. In molecular nanonetworks, transmission and reception of information are carried out by the motion of molecules, called information molecules. Figure 3.1 shows a typical molecular communication nanonetwork. Based on the type of molecule propagation, molecular communication techniques can be classified into walkaway-based, flow-based or diffusion-based. On the other hand, electromagnetic nanonetworks use electromagnetic waves with the framework of wireless technology. However, wiring a large number of nodes is nearly impractical because of the small size of nanomachine. Besides, it is difficult to integrate the current electromagnetic transceivers into the nanomachines because of their size and complexity. Therefore, the use of carbon structure is a possible way to develop the electronic nano-components. Recent advances in carbon and molecular electronics opened new door to generate electronic nanoscale components such as nanobatteries (Curtright, Bouwman, Wartena, & Swider-Lyons, 2004), nanoscale energy-harvesting systems (Wang, 2008), nano-memories (Bennewitz et al., 2002), logical circuitry in the nanoscale and even nano-antennas (Burke, Li, & Yu, 2006; Burke, Rutherglen, & Yu, 2006, September).