chapter  Chapter Five
16 Pages

The Violation of Intelligence

WithJohn F. Schostak

Biological definitions tend to locate intelligence in evolutionary terms where the higher species are seen to be more adaptable and versatile than the lower species. Conceptions of intelligence have largely been appropriated by schools as tools by which to select and grade both pupils and materials. Intelligence, it has been argued, may be defined in terms of good performance in the official school curriculum or in terms of an ability to 'mess' or 'have a laugh'. Intelligence becomes defined in terms of 'knowing how to handle oneself under a variety of circumstances. One who knows how to 'handle' his or herself may be called 'smart' or 'street-wise' in one social set, 'brilliant' or 'sparkling' in another. The denial of opportunity through the unequal distribution of the fruits of social labour violates an individual's sense of moral order and also the individual's intelligence.