Concrete durability and sustainability as influenced by resistance to fluid ingress and selection of cementitious materials
ABSTRACT: Concrete is a durable and sustainable material and concrete is the most widely used material for both buildings and infrastructure. When properly designed and constructed, it can resist severe storms and earthquakes, as well as aggressive environments. In addition to reduction of the initial carbon footprint of the concrete by reducing the cement clinker component, an important aspect of concrete sustainability is improving its durability, as structures that do not need replacing and have an extended service life saves both raw materials and energy. However, if proper materials, proportions, detailing and construction practices are not selected for the proposed environmental exposure, then concrete structures can deteriorate prematurely. The beneficial roles of supplementary cementing materials in improving durability are reviewed.