Shrinkage creep and thermal properties
Shrinkage and creep are time-dependent deformations that, along with cracking, provide the greatest concerns for the designers because of uncertainty associated with their prediction. Concrete exhibits elastic deformations only under loads of short duration and, due to additional deformation with time, the effective behavior is that of an inelastic and time-dependent material. A quantitative knowledge of mechanical behavior, including delayed deformations and thermal effects, is necessary for a number of structures: bridges, buildings etc. In other cases, control of short- and long-term cracking requires an accurate modelling of strains and stresses at all ages of the structure.