Mix design for underwater concrete
Concrete mix design involves the selection and proportioning of available materials to produce concretes which in both the fresh and hardened state meet the requirements of a specified application. Generally these requirements concentrate on the properties of workability/flow, compressive strength and durability. The overall concreting operation needs to be achieved as economically as possible and for simple concrete construction this often requires the mix design to minimize material costs, i.e. the cost of the ingredients. However, for some specialized applications higher concrete material costs are more than compensated for by the savings achieved at the transportation/casting stage, or the speed with which the structure can start to earn revenue.