chapter  4
22 Pages

Methods of placing concrete underwater

ByF Rendell

The range of application of underwater concreting is wide: early examples of the placing of concrete beneath water level were generally in the form of bagwork, a natural extension of the use of masonry. Wharves, docks and piers all found use for the application of underwater concreting and many of the older structures were constructed using mass concrete, thus giving a versatile, economic alternative to masonry construction. Many of these older applications of underwater concreting suffered from deterioration due to the poor quality of the placed concrete and to lack of control in placement.