Durability of concrete underwater
Portland cement structural concrete is a popular material for marine applications. It has been used for the construction of sea defences, harbours, wharves, jetties, floating structures, defence forts and lighthouses, etc., for almost a century. In more recent times the development of the offshore oil industry has led to new marine applications such as concrete platforms and oil storage structures in the North Sea. These applications have extended the use of concrete to greater marine depths (100-150 m) than ever before.