Genetics of Endocrine Disorders and Diabetes Mellitus
The advent of molecular genetics techniques has led to an explosion in information regarding the molecular basis and genetics of disease. In the case of diabetes mellitus, the tremendous amount of work that has been published has not yet revealed the molecular genetic basis of either of the common types of diabetes, but many possibilities have been examined and either ruled out or found to be important in a subset of disease. The promoter region of the Growth hormone (GH) gene regulates somatotroph-specific expression of GH. Transcription factors interact with the promoter to control gene expression. The mode of inheritance of Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) -Ia and PPHP is considered to be autosomal dominant. Three of the facilitative glucose transporters have been considered possible candidates in the etiology of diabetes mellitus, including Glutl, Glut2, and Glut4. The protein is a 29-kDa protein that has similarity with the Ras-guanosine triphosphatase superfamily.