Grappling with corruption globally
In the concluding chapter, comparative analysis and assessment of the state of corruption in the nations and regions addressed in Part II of the book are provided. The review takes into consideration that the level of historical and social development varies considerably for the advanced nations of Europe to the underdeveloped former colonies of Africa, that social and political norms in advanced societies vary considerably from “new” nations without the Western norms of behavior for public officials. This concluding chapter also offers a review of recent and current international efforts to address corruption and influence the adoption of national compliance standards designed to produce a worldwide culture of ethical behavior and accountability. It includes an overview of actions by international agencies that have directly addressed the need to reduce and eliminate corruption, namely the United Nations, the World Bank, and Transparency International. In addition, the efforts and contributions of regional and other specialized international institutions are assessed, including the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) with 36 members among the advanced world economies, the Inter-American Bank with 26 members in South America and the Caribbean; and Transparency International (TI) and its index of corruption in 180 nations.