30The author provided an examination of the theoretical and historical context of the word “corruption,” explaining that a comprehensive interpretation that transcends culture and history is valuable in order to evaluate attempts by developing nations to transform their past cultures to modern expectations of accountability and integrity. Recent changes in the post-communist world of central and Eastern Europe have influenced the concept of corruption in transforming nation-states, and the impact of economic growth and development of nation-states in Eastern and Southeastern Asia will also be of value. Africa and parts of South America will also be found to be in a high state of development, with changing values and concepts. The influence of culture in maintaining historical concepts of corruption in developing societies will be critical to an understanding of the resistance to reform and the pervasiveness of corruption as a factor resisting advancement as a developed nation-state.
The chapter opens the debate on corruption’s boundaries by reviewing what might be called external or macro-level corruption; second, moving to a more detailed discussion of internal or organizational and individual micro-level corruption; third, considering prospects for reform; and finally, drawing conclusions for both theory and practice.