Dyneins are molecular motors that are involved in various cellular processes, such as cilia and flagella motility, vesicular transport, and mitosis. Since the first edition of this book was published in 2012, there has been a significant breakthrough: the crystal structures of the motor domains of cytoplasmic dynein have been solved and the previously unknown details of this huge and complex molecule have been unveiled. This new edition contains 14 chapters written by researchers in the US, Europe, and Asia, including 3 new chapters that incorporate new fields. The other chapters have also been substantially updated. Compared with the earlier edition, this book focuses more on the motile mechanisms of dynein, especially by biophysical methods such as cryo-EM, X-ray crystallography, and single-molecule nanometry. It is a major handbook for frontline researchers as well as for advanced students studying cell biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, and structural biology.