The linking of the words mathematics and chemistry became more frequent throughout the 20 century culminating in the establishment of a number of research journals on mathematical chemistry. This mathematical connection was further enhanced by the application to the chemistry of specialized areas of mathematics such as topology, computer science, probability/statistics, and graph theory. The establishment of journals in mathematical chemistry was soon followed by conferences on this topic. An organization with this specific interest, the International Academy of Mathematical Chemistry was founded to focus on and support the view that applying mathematical and computational methods to chemistry was and is a valuable area of research. By a topological application to chemistry, it is meant a topology application that uses methods that involve more than connectivity properties. The latter is better thought of as graph theory applications.