Cultural factors currently affecting inclusive practice – Europe
This chapter presents a brief comparison of inclusive practice in physical activity and education from four European national/regional perspectives – the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Norway/Scandinavia. The contributions are unified in as much as they suggest a common sense of purpose and philosophy: that difference should be recognized and welcomed and accommodation through changes in policy and practice put in place to ensure a broad and balanced physical education and sport experience for all young people. The UK section wrestles with the issue that terminology around inclusion has inhibited a clear direction but also emphasizes the significant role played by education in driving change. The section on Germany further reinforces the crucial importance of embedding inclusive practice in the education context but also highlights the variations in policy that can be endemic in a federal system. The Italy and Norway/Scandinavia contributions show how declarations agreed at an international level can influence policy and affect practice on the ground in markedly different ways; in both, a focus on the needs of the individual is key. Whatever the approach, in all cases inclusion is primarily viewed as a fundamental human right.