Historical Facts toward Introduction of Fiber-Optics and Photonics
Invention of optical fiber and its drastic improvement in the last few decades is undoubtably a glorious chapter in the history of light wave technology. Optical fibers are mainly classified in two broad categories: single mode fiber and multimode fiber. There are many special fibers also based on the material and internal structure variation, such as plastic core fiber, bare fiber, attenuating fiber, double clad fiber, erbium/ytterbium doped amplifier fiber, mid-infrared fiber, photosensitive fibers and polarization maintaining fiber. Except these fibers, photonic crystal fiber is the new generation optical fiber which has design flexibility as well as advantageous optical properties. Fiber drawing mechanism is explained compactly with illustrative figures. Optical fibers have a unique capability for carrying a huge amount of data over a long distance as well as in different applications such as laser making, optical amplifier, automotive, sensing and medical applications, etc.