Progress on Optical Fiber Sensor for the Measurement of Physical Parameters and Chemical Sensing
In this chapter, some basic phenomenon of optical fibers are reviewed as nowadays they are a unique candidate for the sophisticated use of electromagnetic wave propagation for the measurement system. Fiber optics is also giving a new direction in the sensing arena for enormous applications.
In this context, the principles of operation and trends of several sensor configurations based on single mode and multimode fibers have been discussed, e.g., Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, Sagnac, Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI), fiber loop resonators and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. Bio photonic sensors are now often used for measuring blood flow, glucose content, oxygen saturation in blood and temperature changes in the human physical structure. Various aspects of application-based sensors are discussed.