chapter  1
34 Pages

Interwar East Central Europe, 1918–1941

The failure of democracy-building, the fate of minorities– an Introduction
WithSabrina P. Ramet

All seven states that comprised interwar East Central Europe entered the third decade of the twentieth century with one or another version of parliamentarism. But only in Czechoslovakia did parliamentary rule survive past the early 1930s, and Czechoslovakia itself would be carved up between September 1938 and March 1939, with the Czech lands incorporated into the Third Reich and Slovakia set up as a Nazi puppet state. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, there were problems in the region with corruption, anti-Semitism, ethnically biased land reform, discrimination against ethnic minorities, revanchism (in the cases of Hungary and Bulgaria), rashes of assassinations (especially in Romania), and the emergence of anti-democratic fascist parties.