In both Taiwan and Hong Kong, 1987 brought heightened expectations of fundamental changes in the political arena and loud cries for democratization. Martial law, in effect since 1949, was officially lifted on July 15, removing restrictions on a number of political activities. The political reforms both were accompanied by and led to significant changes in Taiwan's economic and social systems. The most significant example of the greater openness and increased civic activity on Taiwan is the emergence of the Democratic Progressive Party. In the summer of 1987 a voice for "the right to advocate Taiwan independence" began surfacing among the radical elements of the Democratic Progressive Party, perhaps in anticipation of the Second Party Congress. Another major area of debate in Hong Kong during 1987 was the issue of political reform to establish a more representative system. The politically apathetic population of Hong Kong were awakened by the continuing debates and exchanges between the two sides.