This chapter considers several critical elements of a national rural development policy and a comprehensive community economic development strategy. An effective rural development policy must integrate macro, sectoral, territorial, and human resource policies to create a positive and supportive environment for communities. Territorial or place-oriented policies that facilitate the process of rural institutional capacity building are an important element in rural economic development policy. Human resource policies that equip people for employment and major changes in employment are critical. Since the late 1950s some social analysts, particularly sociologists, have argued that communities have been eclipsed by changes in society that have increased the presence of extralocal forces in the community. Effective policy options for the future will require a greater partnership between local and national architects of policies and programs than has been characteristic of the past. The chapter also presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book.