This chapter assesses the use of labor resources in the nonmetro United States and examines the implications of alternative industries and labor market structures for generating employment and improving economic well-being. It draws on literature from economics, sociology, and regional science consistent with the approaches of P. M. Horan and C. M. Tolbert and M. Fischer and P. Nijkamp. The chapter explores studies of underemployment, focusing on differences in labor market outcomes between demographic groups and the relationships between these outcomes and specific industries. It also assesses labor market research analyzing rural or nonmetro labor markets. The chapter summarizes the implications of employment generation strategies for labor utilization. Like unemployment, underemployment is unevenly distributed across regions and among individuals within regions. Employment experiences differ by industry when measured in both static and more dynamic frameworks. J. E. Mutchler provides measures of under employment in the United States by several industry categories and self-employment: farm, construction, and competitive nonmanufacturing.