Education in Pakistan: Past Dilemmas and Future Prospects
This chapter presents an overview of the recent theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between education and various aspects of development with a view to highlighting the benefits and returns from investing in education, and its relevance for Pakistan. Over a period of time, development has come to be recognized as having more than one dimension. The core assumption is that education cuts across three important dimensions: economic, cultural-ideological and political. The first dimension of development is useful only when defined in terms of economic growth. The second dimension of development seeks the satisfaction of population's basic needs. The third dimension of development involves the attainment of objectives sought by various groups in a society, which are linked to the use of scarce resources. During the Zia regime, the Sixth Five Year Plan sought to improve literacy level by means of a two-pronged attack, by accelerating primary education and by launching a functional literacy program for adults.