This chapter aims to indicate the national and regional trends of fuelwood-energy availability and consumption in the Sudan. It assesses the impact of the use of fuelwood on deforestation. The chapter examines local patterns of fuel wood exploitation; and explores the environmental impact of deforestation in a semiarid region. It discusses the ecological-economic costs and benefits of the present pattern of energy use; and reviews a number of policies to ameliorate the situation. Three great interacting systems—involving the flow of energy, nutrients, and water—each having its own inputs, storage, and outputs, form the basis of all physical and biological processes on earth. Vegetation, soils, and animals play a vital role in these systems, and any impact on one will have repercussions on all. Drastic environmental impacts follow the complete removal of woodland vegetation. The chapter argues that there are both beneficial and adverse consequences of the present deforestation practices in the Sudan.