Creation and Restoration of Wetlands in Suburban Landscapes
The growing human demand for land, expressed as an unending stream of development activity, reduces the amount of naturally-occurring wetlands while simultaneously creating additional nonpoint sources (NPS) of pollution. Many pollutants are associated with stormwater runoff, including suspended sediment, phosphorus, nitrogen, trace metals, hydrocarbons, bacteria, and increased biological or chemical oxygen demand. The original stormwater management plan by the project engineer called for all runoff from the site to be piped directly to an existing lake on the property. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection's policy prohibits this so-called on-line detention of stormwater because of the NPS pollution loads that would flow untreated into the watershed. The design focuses on the creation of substantial marsh-open water edge to provide foraging opportunities for water-associated species and on the gradual transition of the marsh into adjacent upland grassland.