Liquid Metal–Enabled Functional Flexible and Stretchable Electronics
This chapter presents an overview of material properties, design strategies, and typical applications of liquid metal-enabled (LM-enabled) flexible and stretchable electronics. It focuses on the core manufacturing material: room-temperature liquid metal, mainly represented by gallium and its alloys with the properties of excellent resistivity, enormous bendability, low adhesion, and large surface tension. Along with the development of material science and technology, LM-enabled flexible electronics are quickly shaping the field of flexible electronic circuits and allied machines, serving as a basic way of quickly making functional devices. The chapter discusses the developments in LM soft device applications, which include but are not limited to strain sensors, stretchable coils, e-skin, wearable bioelectronics, and conformable bioelectronics. It examines the drawbacks and challenges of LM material properties and flexible fabrication technologies, and sets goals to achieve LM intelligent flexible future.