Printing Technology for Fabrication of Flexible and Stretchable Electronics
The chapter begins with discussion of various printing methods and their advantages and disadvantages for the fabrication of printed electronics. It introduces ink formulations for inorganic nanomaterials, including metal nanoparticles, transparent conductive oxide, carbon nanomaterials, and semiconductor nanomaterials. Printing, an additive manufacturing process, can serve as an effective tool for the fabrication of various flexible and stretchable electronics. The chapter presents various post-printing treatments in view of meeting the requirements of low-temperature sintering technique for plastic substrates. It demonstrates typical applications of printed flexible and stretchable electronics including transistors, solar cells, light-emitting devices, and stretchable circuits. Inkjet printing, in principle, can be divided into two modes of operation: one is continuous inkjet mode and the other is drop on demand inkjet mode. Besides the conventional inkjet printing technique, aerosol-jet printing is also used in the fabrication of flexible electronics.