chapter  4
24 Pages

HISTORY OF SOLID- STATE FERMENTED FOODS AND BEVERAGES SONG LIU, D ONGX UZHA NG, JIAN CH EN, AND

WithYA NG ZHU

During the fermentation of raw material, the processing of microorgan isms (bacteria, yeast, and fungi) and enzymes cause many

4.3.4 Modern Testing Technologies 106 4.4 Concepts, Categories, and Characteristics of Solid-State

Fermented Foods and Beverages 106 4.4.1 Introduction 106 4.4.2 Categories of Solid-State Fermented Foods and

Beverages 108 4.4.3 Variety of Flavors 108 4.4.4 Nutritional Values and Physiological Properties 110

4.5 Materials and Methods of SSF Food and Beverages 111 4.5.1 Preparation of Materials 111 4.5.2 Fermentation Processes 112

4.5.2.1 Initial Stage of Hydrolysis and Degradation of Macromolecular Compounds 112

4.5.2.2 Intermediate Stage on Metabolic Products 112 4.5.2.3 Later Stages of SSF Flavor Development 112

4.5.3 Key Points of Process Control in SSF Food and Beverages 113 4.5.3.1 Contamination Control 113 4.5.3.2 Production Strains 113 4.5.3.3 Granularity of Mediums 114 4.5.3.4 Temperature and Moisture Content of

Mediums 114 4.5.3.5 Maturity of SSF Flavor 115

References 115

biochemical and physical changes. Generally, the style and flavor of the fermented foods and beverages in the world are the masterpieces of the micro organ ism’s vital movement. e micro organ isms needed for food fermentation have existed for billions of years. As humans and even animals evolved on Earth, they used micro organ isms to preserve food components and yield attractive aromas and flavors, avoiding the food with unpleasant aromas or flavors. ese were the beginning of fermented foods, including sour milk, cheeses, wines and beers, vinegar, lactic acid foods, such as sauerkraut, and hundreds of other fermented foods consumed today (Hui et al., 2004).