Commercial Use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in Bioremediation and Phytoremediation
This chapter describes the potential need for engineered organisms in commercial remediation. It summarizes some of the ways that academic and industrial research groups are considering modifying naturally occurring organisms for this purpose. The chapter examines the prospects for the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in commercial remediation. In assessing the possible role that GMOs may play in commercial remediation, it is first useful to consider the existing market for remediation products and services, in particular several aspects of this market most relevant to introduction of GMOs. GMOs designed for remediation will be entering a market that is mature, slow-growing, and fragmented among a very large number of providers and a large number of competing technologies. The bulk of the bioremediation market consists of services rather than sales of microorganisms. Several features of the remediation market will affect the adoption and widespread use of GMOs in bioremediation or phytoremediation.