Reproductive Biology and Growth of Marine Lobsters
Lobsters are found throughout the world’s temperate and tropical oceans and are among the most highly esteemed and valuable seafood products. The factors affecting larval abundance and distribution include the distribution of spawning females, the velocity and direction of surface currents, temperature, salinity, light intensity, hydrostatic pressure, and larval mortality. The generalized life cycle of spiny lobsters was described by Lipcius and Eggleston and includes five major phases: egg, phyllosoma, puerulus, juvenile and adult. Premoult activities include limb regeneration, resorption and storage of cuticular components, deposition of new cuticle, histolysis of somatic muscle, selective water and ion absorption, and shifts in biochemical pathways. Temperature is the most important influence on growth in juvenile and adult clawed and spiny lobsters. The ability of any lobster species to produce larvae is dictated by its reproductive characteristics, particularly the mode of gamete development and embryonic maturation.