Implementation of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Cause and Effect Diagram, HACCP and ISO 22000 to the Reproductive Cycle and Growth of Crustaceans in Cultured Conditions
Crustaceans are a dominant and successful group represented by a high number of species exhibiting a great array of life styles and occupying quite dissimilar habitats. Fisheries, including aquaculture, provide a vital source of food, employment, recreation, trade and economic well-being for people throughout the world, both present and future generations, and should therefore be conducted in a responsible manner. A few researchers and commercial hatcheries in Venezuela, Ecuador, Australia and Mexico managed to select families in a breeding program and obtain egg development, mating and spawning of captive penaeids without ablation. The achievement of functional sexual maturity can be noticed by macroscopic observations of gonad size and color. In some species, gametes are produced rather continuously and the sequential offspring production is interrupted only during the incubation period. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points is a systematic preventive approach to food safety that addresses physical, chemical and biological hazards as a means of prevention rather than finished product inspection.