Aspects on Population and Aquaculture Genetics of Crustaceans
Molecular techniques provide a method for identifying differences in DNA composition between individuals. A concrete understanding of population genetic structure is of primary importance for the management and conservation of genetic resources in exploited marine organisms. Studies on population genetic structure of marine biota have frequently indicated that organisms with high dispersal capacity have little genetic distinction over large geographic scales. Prawns are edible, shrimp-like crustaceans, belonging to the suborder Dendrobranchiata. Possible deleterious consequences of uncontrolled inbreeding, and engendered attempts to maintain larger effective population sizes in breeding programmes, are well documented. Intraspecific crossbreeding may increase growth rate, but heterosis may not be obtained in every case. Interspecific hybridization has been used to increase growth rate, manipulate sex ratios, produce sterile animals, improve flesh quality, increase disease resistance, improve tolerance of environmen.