This chapter describes basic concepts in data mining, typical tasks for data mining, and basic data structures as targets of data mining.
First, the fundamental concepts of data mining [Han et al. 2006, Tan et al. 2006], which can be used as principal techniques for constructing hypotheses in the analysis of social big data, will be briefl y described. Data mining is, in a nutshell, to discover frequent patterns and meaningful structures appearing in a large amount of data used by applications. Principal techniques, such as multivariate analysis, for validating hypotheses in social big data will be explained in a separate chapter.