Emergency preparedness is a part of vulnerability reduction, and should not be implemented as an isolated project and programme. A desirable emergency preparedness and response framework would include elements at the national and provincial levels at least, with links to the emergency management organisations. The national emergency health planning committee and the national emergency health manager must cooperate with the national emergency management organisation, and provide policy and standards to the health sector at national, provincial and community levels. An emergency preparedness process is a series of related methods for preparing a community, or an organisation, for emergencies. A representative planning group or committee composed of decision-makers is essential to emergency planning. The planning process described is a series of rational steps for producing an emergency plan. Emergency planning does not require the creation of a new emergency management organisation – it uses the abilities and resources of existing organisations.