chapter  20
18 Pages

Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure in children

ByO Norregaard

Physiology and symptoms 258

Treatment 259

Monitoring 260

Modes 262

Interfaces 264

Humidification 265

Sedation and pain management 265

Setting 265

Selection criteria 266

Contraindications 266

Outcome 266

Negative pressure ventilation 269

References 270

Respiratory failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, both in the industrialized world and in the developing world, where 6-36 per cent of all paediatric deaths can be attributed to pneumonia1 and in certain conditions such as neuromuscular disease it is the most frequent cause of death. Traditionally, respiratory failure, whether acute or chronic, was either not treated at all or treated with intubation in the acute setting, and with tracheostomy for chronic conditions.