Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure in children
Physiology and symptoms 258
Sedation and pain management 265
Selection criteria 266
Negative pressure ventilation 269
Respiratory failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, both in the industrialized world and in the developing world, where 6-36 per cent of all paediatric deaths can be attributed to pneumonia1 and in certain conditions such as neuromuscular disease it is the most frequent cause of death. Traditionally, respiratory failure, whether acute or chronic, was either not treated at all or treated with intubation in the acute setting, and with tracheostomy for chronic conditions.