chapter  21
16 Pages

Home ventilation in children

ByB Fauroux

Paediatric conditions that can be improved by NIV 275

Benefits of non-invasive ventilation 278

Criteria to initiate NIV 282

Ventilatory modes and interfaces for children 282

Contraindications, side-effects and limits of NIV 285

References 286

Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) is increasingly used at home for children with chronic respiratory failure. Indeed, a number of diseases leading to chronic respiratory failure in childhood, such as neuromuscular diseases, abnormalities of the airways, the chest wall and/or the lungs, or disorders of ventilatory control, are primarily disorders that lead to alveolar hypoventilation which can be improved by ventilatory assistance. Here, oxygen therapy alone is not only usually ineffective in relieving symptoms, but has also been shown to be dangerous and may lead to a marked acceleration of CO2 retention.