Home ventilation in children
Paediatric conditions that can be improved by NIV 275
Beneﬁts of non-invasive ventilation 278
Criteria to initiate NIV 282
Ventilatory modes and interfaces for children 282
Contraindications, side-effects and limits of NIV 285
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) is increasingly used at home for children with chronic respiratory failure. Indeed, a number of diseases leading to chronic respiratory failure in childhood, such as neuromuscular diseases, abnormalities of the airways, the chest wall and/or the lungs, or disorders of ventilatory control, are primarily disorders that lead to alveolar hypoventilation which can be improved by ventilatory assistance. Here, oxygen therapy alone is not only usually ineffective in relieving symptoms, but has also been shown to be dangerous and may lead to a marked acceleration of CO2 retention.